Scotlands History

Alexander II (1198–1249)

Alexander II was the only son of William the Lion and Ermengarde de Beaumont. His reign lasted from his father’s death in 1214 until his own in 1249. Peaceful relations with England were reinforced when he married Henry III of England’s sister Joan (she was 11) in 1221. 

Henry III requested homage soon after 1235. Alexander II responded with a counter claim to the northern English counties. The settlement of this dispute is known as the Treaty of York, signed in 1237, which determined the border between the kingdoms.

Joan died in 1238, and Alexander remarried the following year. This second marriage, to Marie de Coucy, produced one son, Alexander III.

Alexander II suffered a fever on the way to force Ewen, Lord of Argyll to sever ties with Norway. He died at Kerrera in 1249 and was buried at Melrose Abbey.

  • Red seal showing a seated man holding a sword and an orb with a long cross

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