Scotlands History

Execution of Charles I (30 January 1649)

Charles I ruled from 1625 to 1649.  His reign was fraught with conflict, mostly because he tried repeatedly to force his wishes on the country without reference to Parliament’s advice.

After the first English Civil War, Parliament expected that he would accept its demands for a constitutional monarchy. This did not happen, resulting in a second civil war. He was again defeated and captured. This time he was tried and convicted of high treason.

The king was executed in 1649. The monarchy was then abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland - also known as the Cromwellian Interregnum - was established. The Commonwealth lasted until the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.

  • Oil painting of the execution of Charles I

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